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The JFK Assassination in Culture: Introduction

November 16, 2013

Underneath the chilly gray November sky

We can make believe that Kennedy is still alive

We’re shooting for the moon and smiling Jackie’s driving by

-Andy Prieboy, “Tomorrow Wendy”

About a third of the way into “Love Among the Ruins”, the second episode of the third season of Mad Men, Roger Sterling (John Slattery), one of the partners of an ad agency, gets a visit from his ex-wife Mona (Talia Balsam, Slattery’s real-life wife) and his daughter Margaret (Elizabeth Rice). After arguing over with Roger over whether his current wife Jane (Peyton List) should be allowed to come to Margaret’s wedding (Mona is willing to compromise, but Margaret doesn’t want her there at all), they show Roger invitations, and he picks one out. The date reads, “November 23, 1963”, and even though creator Matt Weiner had initially said he wasn’t going to cover that period in time during the show, most viewers could guess what that date signified. Sure enough, “The Grown-Ups”, the penultimate episode of the season, spent much of its running time showing the reaction of those four characters, as well as everyone else on the show, to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

In the introduction to his novel American Tabloid, James Ellroy argues:

America was never innocent. We popped our cherry on the boat over and looked back with no regrets. You can’t ascribe our fall from grace to any single event or set of circumstances. You can’t lose what you lacked at conception.

Blunt, of course (and, for critics of Ellroy, self-serving nihilism masquerading as insight), but Ellroy highlights an argument that’s been going on ever since this country was founded. One of the dominant strains of American culture (novels, music, plays, TV shows, and, of course, movies) has been the longing for a more innocent time, and hand-in-hand with that longing, of course, has been the nagging question of trying to figure out Where It All Went Wrong for us. Was it the Civil War? The Great Depression? The McCarthy era? Vietnam? Watergate? 9/11? Or was it, as Ellroy (and many others, to be sure) suggests, right when we came here? Or was it indeed that fateful Friday afternoon, November 22, 1963, when the presidential limo drove past the school depository in Dallas?

When John F. Kennedy, the 33rd President of the United States, was assassinated that day, writers invoked Camelot, the long-running Broadway musical at the time, particularly the line from the show, “One brief shining moment” (William Manchester later used that line as the title for a book he wrote memorializing Kennedy). Just as people of my generation will remember where they were and what they were doing on 9/11, people of age at that time remember where they were and what they were doing when Kennedy was shot, and how seismic an event it seemed. It’s entirely fair to say, if you read or watch the coverage from that day, or read accounts of what happened, that the world seemed to stop, just as it did on 9/11. It’s true there were people who were glad Kennedy was dead (not least the people who circulated the “Kennedy: Wanted for Treason” ad that was in newspapers before his visit to Dallas), but it’s also true there was nationwide mourning, and even worldwide mourning, even in countries who weren’t necessarily friendly to the U.S.

As time has passed, the luster attached to JFK has faded somewhat, and his legacy is still up for debate. We know he suffered from Addison’s disease, which he had to take painkillers for. We also know the marriage of the Kennedys wasn’t the media-perfect marriage portrayed at the time, as he slept around with a lot of women. And for all those who see JFK as the man who challenged the country to do better (as per “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country”), who was the president that championed civil rights, the space program, and nuclear disarmament, there are those who say his reputation as far as civil rights goes is overrated (it was LBJ, for example, who ultimately pushed through the civil rights bill) and he was more of a Cold War warrior than people would like to believe, pointing, for example, to his rhetoric as a senator (he gave full credence to the domino theory), his fascination with spy novels and how they influenced his thinking with regards to foreign policy, and the claims he was secretly plotting to neutralize Castro even while publicly decrying the Bay of Pigs. Still, whatever his legacy may ultimately be, there’s a reason why he still exerts a hold on history, as well as the people who lived during that time, and why his death still reverberates. For starters, he was the youngest president at the time to serve, and he died young (only 45 years old when he was assassinated). Also, however manufactured this image may have been, Kennedy was a president who, for the most part, was charming, engaging, glamorous, and thoughtful on camera and in front of the press, as well as witty in a way his immediate predecessors weren’t considered to be.* Finally, and arguably most importantly, even after 50 years, we still don’t know what happened.

We know when Kennedy was killed, of course. We know Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for both Kennedy’s assassination and the shooting death of Officer J.D. Tippit (which occurred about an hour later). And we know on November 24, as the Dallas police were taking Oswald to a car so they could transfer him to the county jail, Jack Ruby, a strip club owner, shot Oswald dead. But because Oswald was never tried and was never able to testify on his own behalf, and despite the fact the Warren Commission – set up by President Johnson to investigate what happened, headed up by Chief Justice Earl Warren, and including former CIA director Allen Dulles and future president Gerald Ford – concluded in its report Oswald did kill Kennedy and acted on his own, no one really knows for sure. There are people, to be sure, who believe the Warren Commission, given both the evidence at the time and how it can be interpreted today (with the technological advances available today) was correct in their verdict. And these people – including David W. Belin (former counsel to the Warren Commission), Gerald Posner (Case Closed) and Vincent Bugliosi (Four Days in November, re-issued as Parkland) – have said so over the years. But while the Warren Report was accepted for the most part when it was first released in 1964, over the next few decades, most Americans (at least, those who were polled) now believe there was some kind of conspiracy to kill Kennedy (even the House of Representatives Select Committee in 1979, while they said Oswald was the shooter, also admitted there was probably a conspiracy, though they weren’t able to name the conspirators).

There’s no exact agreement on what Oswald was (was he a CIA agent, a Soviet-controlled one, or simply a patsy?), who organized the assassination (the mob, the CIA, right-wing extremists, the Cubans), or why (revenge for the Bay of Pigs, to prevent Kennedy from withdrawing from Vietnam), but all conspiracy theorists, and their adherents, do agree there was a conspiracy. Is this simply because, as Manchester has stated, it seems inconceivable that someone like Oswald, a loner who went through a series of low-paying jobs and seemed no more than average-level competence and intelligence, could have assassinated the “leader of the free world” (Manchester doesn’t believe there was a conspiracy, but is sympathetic to those who do because of this)? Of is it something deeper? After all, we’ve seen in the years since Kennedy’s assassination how much the people in power have lied to us, over Vietnam, Watergate, and Iraq, and so on. We’ve also seen how the CIA and other government agencies have acted in secret; plotting to kill Castro (with the mob), infiltrating left-wing organizations, helping plan a coup in Chile, propping up the Shah in Iran and Noriega in Panama (at least until, for the latter, it was no longer politically expedient to do so). With all these attempts by our government and its intelligence agencies to get rid of leaders in power we didn’t like in other countries, who’s to say it couldn’t happen here?

Greetings (1968): Lloyd Clay (Gerrit Graham, right) finds a kindred conspiracy theorist.

Of course, since movies, television, literature and other arts reflect the culture and life of a country, they have also joined the debate.** As early as 1968, Brian De Palma’s film Greetings had a character (played by Gerrit Graham) who was an obsessed JFK assassination conspiracy theorist (he meets a kindred spirit in a bookstore; Richard Linklater’s Slacker, which came out 23 years later, had a similar scene). And though Michelangelo Antonioni’s Blow-Up doesn’t mention politics at all, it seems weirdly appropriate what little plot there was involved Thomas (David Hemmings), a photographer, becoming convinced he had photographed a murder, and that he studied his photograph as obsessively as JFK assassination conspiracy theorists would study the Zapruder film (or, at least, the photos of it made available in Life magazine). Still, it was mostly in the 70’s when movies and novels began to reflect the unease with the official position on the assassination. As with Vietnam and Watergate, movies, which were still controlled and released by major studios for the most part and were looking to please a wide audience and not court controversy, dealt with the subject obliquely rather than directly. But it’s surely no coincidence the 70’s gave rise to the conspiracy, or paranoid, thriller (and that it spread to such other genres as sci-fi, with movies like the remake of Invasion of the Body Snatchers). Of course, these weren’t the only movies out there, but they definitely seemed to catch a mood in the air.

Though the assassination debate seemed to cool off, at least culture-wise, in the 80’s (other kinds of movies were dominating the landscape at the time), it came roaring back with a vengeance when Oliver Stone came out with his movie JFK in 1991. In 1968, New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison put businessman Clay Shaw on trial for conspiracy to kill Kennedy (Shaw was the only one ever tried on such a charge), and though Shaw was found not guilty, Stone hung his movie on Garrison’s trial and investigation as a way of countering what he called the “myth” of the Warren Commission (he called his own movie a “counter-myth”). Other historical dramas (or docudramas) had come under fire by people who thought the films were playing fast and loose with the facts, but few of them came under as much criticism as Stone’s film did. Even people who believed there was a conspiracy though Garrison was a crackpot and for Stone to use him as his hero was simply wrong. As much as the film was criticized, however, Stone’s film did re-ignite the debate, and possibly thanks to the furor it created, the JFK Records Act was passed in 1992, which established that Warren Commission records originally meant to be sealed until 2039 would now be released in 2017. And, of course, Stone’s earned over $200 million at the box office worldwide and was nominated for eight Oscars (winning Best Cinematography – for Robert Richardson – and Best Editing), and is being re-released into theaters, not long after Peter Landesman’s Parkland, which takes the opposite tack (being based on Bugliosi’s book), came out. This re-release, of course, comes out just in time for the 50th anniversary of the assassination, which has already inspired a glut of articles in newspapers and magazines (as well as online), and a number of new books as well.

I don’t make any claims as to have “solved” the murder, nor am I writing this to state my views on whether or not Oswald did act alone or whether there was a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy (though I happen to do believe there was a conspiracy). But I do think taking a serious look at how movies (as well as novels and TV shows) took a look at the assassination, the fallout, the debate is an interesting subject to write about. As you can see from the bibliography and filmography I list below, this is unfortunately not as comprehensive as I would have liked it to have been, but I do think I’ve caught an interesting cross-section of how U.S. culture has looked at the Kennedy assassination, from the serious to the crazy to even (in some cases) the satirical. In my next post, I’ll be looking exclusively at works that dealt with how the nation reacted to the assassination itself, as well as Wolfgang Peterson’s In the Line of Fire, which dealt with a character partly inspired by the Secret Service agent (Clint Hill) who was in the motorcade during the assassination. My second post will be about the conspiracy thriller films (and novels), from the 70’s and afterwards, that dealt with the assassination, either obliquely (The Parallax View), satirically (Winter Kills) or directly (Executive Action). My final post will be about Stone’s film, as well as a summing up. Whether you believe Kennedy’s murder was a “loss of innocence” moment or not, it’s still a seismic event in our history whose aftereffects continue to be debated, in media, our government, and our culture.

*- The Rat Pack, Rob Cohen’s entertaining (if not entirely credible) film about when Frank Sinatra (Ray Liotta), Dean Martin (Joe Mantegna), Sammy Davis Jr. (Don Cheadle) and the others were at their peak, has a scene where Sinatra is inspired to campaign for then-Senator Kennedy (William L. Petersen) when he sees him at a press conference on TV reading that famous “telegram” from his father, “Dear Jack; Don’t buy a single vote more than is necessary. I’ll be damned if I’m going to pay for a landslide.” In the movie, Sinatra is charmed by the fact Kennedy took criticism about his father’s wealth, turned it around, and made a joke about it.

**- Even Woody Allen, not exactly who you’d think of as a political comedian, took at jab at the official theory of JFK’s assassination in his routine “The Vodka Ad”, recorded from a 1968 show (found on the out-of-print compilation album Woody Allen: Stand-up Comic); he talks about how he turned down doing a vodka ad (at first; he did do some print ads): “I must say, that it took great courage at the time, ’cause I needed the money, I was writing and I needed to be free, creative. I was working on a non-fiction version of the Warren Report.”

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FILMOGRAPHY

Those marked with an asterisk (*) are books (or movies) that I’ve read (or seen), but wasn’t able to re-read (or re-watch) when I started researching for this project. Also, because of availability, there were books (Conspiracy, by Anthony Summers, books by Sylvia Meagher and Josiah Thompson), movies (FlashpointRuby) and TV episodes (the Twilight Zone episode dealing with someone traveling in time to stop the assassination) I wasn’t able to get to before doing this, and I regret missing those.

BOOKS

The Warren Commission Report, St. Martin’s Griffin, 1992

Braver, Adam, November 22, 1963, Tin House Books, 2008

Brown, Jared, Alan J. Pakula; His Films and His Life, Back Stage Books, 2005

Bugliosi, Vincent, Parkland (previously issued as Four Days in November, taken from Reclaiming History), W.W. Norton, 2007

Condon, Richard, The Manchurian Candidate, McGraw Hill, 1959*

–, Winter Kills, Dell Publishing, 1974

DeLillo, Don, Libra, Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1988

Ellroy, James, American Tabloid, Vintage Books, 1995

–, The Cold Six Thousand, Vintage Books, 2001

Epstein, Edward Jay, Legend: The Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald, McGraw Hill, 1978

Forsyth, Frederick, The Day of the Jackal, Hutchinson & Company, 1971

–, The Odessa File, Viking Penguin Inc., 1972

–, The Negotiator, Bantam, 1989

–, The Deceiver, Bantam 1991

Garrison, Jim, On the Trail of Assassins, Sheridan Square, 1988*

Goldman, William, Marathon Man, Delacorte Press, 1974

Goodwin, Richard, Remembering America: A Voice From the Sixties, Harper & Row Publishers, 1988

Haley, Alex and Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Ballantine Books, 1964

Hoberman, J., The Dream Life: Movies, Media, and the Mythology of the Sixties, The New Press, 2003

Hunter, Stephen, Point of Impact, Bantam Dell, 1993*

-, The Third Bullet, Simon & Schuster, 2013

King, Stephen, 11/22/63, Gallery Books, 2012

Kirshner, Jonathan, Hollywood’s Last Golden Age; Politics, Society, and the Seventies Film in America, Cornell University Press, 2012

Kurtz, Michael L., The JFK Assassination Debates: Lone Gunman versus Conspiracy, University Press of Kansas, 2006

Lee, Spike with Ralph Wiley, By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of the Making of “Malcolm X” Including the Screenplay, Hyperion, 1992

Lehrer, Jim, Top Down; A Novel of the Kennedy Assassination, Random House, 2013

Littell, Robert, The Sisters, Bantam Books, 1986

Ludlum, Robert, The Bourne Identity, Richard Marek, 1980*

Mailer, Norman, Oswald’s Tale; An American Mystery, Random House, 1995

Manchester, William, One Brief Shining Moment; Remembering Kennedy, Little, Brown & Company, 1983*

Marrs, Jim, Crossfire: The Plot to Kill Kennedy, Carroll & Graf, 1989*

McCarry, Charles, The Tears of Autumn, Woodstock, 1974

Peretti, Burton W., The Leading Man; Hollywood and the Presidential Image, Rutgers University Press, 2012

Posner, Gerald, Case Closed, Anchor, 1993

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O’Connor (Editors), Hollywood’s White House; The American Presidency in Film and History, The University Press of Kentucky, 2003

Shapiro, Stanley, A Time to Remember, Random House, 1986

Singer, Loren, The Parallax View, Franklin Watts, 1981 (first published 1970)

Stone, Oliver with Zachary Sklar, JFK: The Book of the Film, Applause Books, 1992

Stone, Oliver with Eric Hamburg, Nixon: The Screenplay, Hyperion, 1995*

Stone, Oliver and Peter Kuznick, The Untold History of the United States, Gallery Books, 2012

Weisberg, Harold, Case Open; The Omissions, Distortions and Falsifications of “Case Closed”, Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1994

Wills, Gary and Ovid Demaris, Jack Ruby, Da Capo Press (originally New American Library), 1968

Wrone, David R., The Zapruder Film: Reframing JFK’s Assassination, University Press of Kansas, 2003

FILMS

An American Affair, W: Alex Metcalf; D: William Olsson; S: Gretchen Mol, Cameron Bright, James Rebhorn, Mark Pellegrino, Perrey Reeves, Noah Wyle; 2009; Screen Media*

Annie Hall, W: Woody Allen & Marshall Brickman; D: Allen; S: Woody Allen, Diane Keaton, Tony Roberts, Carol Kane, Paul Simon; 1977; United Artists

Blow Out, W, D: Brian De Palma; S: John Travolta, Nancy Allen, John Lithgow, Dennis Franz, John Aquino, John McMartin; 1981; Paramount

Blow-Up, W: Michelangelo Antonioni, Edward Bond (English dialogue), Tonino Guerra (from the short story “Las Babas Del Diablo” by Julio Cortazar; S: David Hemmings, Vanessa Redgrave, Sarah Miles, John Castle, Jane Birkin; 1966; MGM

Bull Durham, W, D: Ron Shelton; S: Susan Sarandon, Kevin Costner, Tim Robbins, Trey Wilson, Robert Wuhl, William O’Leary, Jenny Robertson; 1988, Orion

The Conversation, W, D: Francis Ford Coppola; S: Gene Hackman, John Cazale, Allen Garfield, Frederic Forrest, Cindy Williams, Teri Garr, Harrison Ford; 1974; Paramount

Dave, W: Gary Ross; D: Ivan Reitman; S: Kevin Kline, Frank Langella, Sigourney Weaver, Kevin Dunn, Ving Rhames, Ben Kingsley, Oliver Stone, Larry King, 1993, Warner Brothers

Executive Action, W: Dalton Trumbo (from a story by Donald Freed and Mark Lane); D: David Miller; S: Burt Lancaster, Robert Ryan, Will Geer, Ed Lauter; 1973; National General Pictures

A Few Good Men, W: Aaron Sorkin (from his play); D: Rob Reiner; S: Tom Cruise, Demi Moore, Jack Nicholson, Kevin Bacon, Kevin Pollak, James Marshall, Wolfgang Bodison; 1992; Paramount

Four Days in November, W: Theodore Strauss (narration); D: Mel Stuart; Narrated by Richard Basehart; 1964; United Artists

Greetings, W: Brian De Palma and Charles Hirsch; D: De Palma; S: Jonathan Warden, Robert De Niro, Gerrit Graham, Megan McCormick, Ted Lescault, Allen Garfield; 1968; West End Films

Hot Shots, W: Jim Abrahams & Pat Proft; D: Abrahams; S: Charlie Sheen, Valeria Golino, Cary Elwes, Lloyd Bridges, Kevin Dunn, William O’Leary, Heidi Swedberg, 1991, 20th Century Fox

In the Line of Fire, W: Jeff Maguire; D: Wolfgang Peterson; S: Clint Eastwood, John Malkovich, Rene Russo, Dylan McDermott, Gary Cole, Fred Dalton Thompson, John Mahoney; 1993; Columbia

JFK, W: Oliver Stone & Zachary Sklar (from the book On the Trail of Assassins by Jim Garrison and the book Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy); D: Stone; S: Kevin Costner, Tommy Lee Jones, Brian Doyle Murray, Gary Oldman, Joe Pesci, Jay O. Sanders, Michael Rooker, Wayne Knight, Sissy Spacek, Donald Sutherland; 1991; Warner Brothers

Love Field, W: Don Roos; D: Jonathan Kaplan; S: Michelle Pfeiffer, Dennis Haysbert, Brian Kerwin, Beth Grant; 1992; Orion

Malcolm X, W: Spike Lee, Arnold Perl (from the book The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X and Alex Haley); D: Lee; S: Denzel Washington, Angela Bassett, Al Freeman Jr., Albert Hall, Delroy Lindo, Spike Lee; 1992; Warner Brothers

The Manchurian Candidate (1962), W: George Axelrod (from the novel by Richard Condon); D: John Frankenheimer; S: Frank Sinatra, Laurence Harvey, Angela Lansbury, Janet Lee, James Gregory, John McGiver, Leslie Parrish, Khigh Dhiegh; 1962; United Artists

The Manchurian Candidate (2004); W: Dean Georgaris and Daniel Pyne (from the novel by Richard Condon and the screenplay by George Axelrod); D: Jonathan Demme; S: Denzel Washington, Liev Schreiber, Meryl Streep, Jon Voight, Kimberly Elise, Vera Farmiga, Bruno Ganz; 2004; Paramount

Mermaids, W: June Roberts (from the novel by Patty Dann); D: Richard Benjamin; S: Winona Ryder, Cher, Bob Hoskins, Christina Ricci, Michael Schoeffling; 1990; Orion

Nashville, W: Joan Tewkesbury; D: Robert Altman; S: Barbara Baxley, Ned Beatty, Ronee Blakley, Geraldine Chaplin, Henry Gibson, Scott Glenn, Barbara Harris, David Hayward, Michael Murphy, Gwen Welles; 1975; Paramount

Night Moves, W: Alan Sharp; D: Arthur Penn; S: Gene Hackman, Jennifer Warren, Susan Clark, Edward Binns, Harris Yullin, James Woods, Melanie Griffith; 1975; Warner Brothers

Nixon, W: Stephen J. Rivele, Christopher Wilkinson, Oliver Stone; D: Stone; S: Anthony Hopkins, Joan Allen, Larry Hagman, Ed Harris, Bob Hoskins, David Hyde Pierce, Paul Sorvino, J.T. Walsh, James Woods; 1995; Hollywood Pictures

The Odessa File, W: George Markstein and Kenneth Ross (from the novel by Frederick Forsyth); D: Ronald Neame; S: Jon Voight, Maximilian Schell, Maria Schell, Mary Tamm, Derek Jacobi, Peter Jeffrey; 1974, Columbia

Oswald’s Ghost, W, D: Robert Stone; S: Robert Dallek, Edward Jay Epstein, Todd Gitlin, Tom Hayden, Mark Lane, Norman Mailer, Dan Rather, Josiah Thompson; 2007; BBC

The Parallax View, W: David Giler and Lorenzo Semple Jr. (from the novel by Loren Singer); D: Alan J. Pakula; S: Warren Beatty, Hume Cronyn, Paula Prentiss, William Daniels, Walter McGinn; 1974; Paramount

Parkland, W, D: Peter Landesman (from the book Four Days in November by Vincent Bugliosi); S: James Badge Dale, Zac Efron, Paul Giamatti, Colin Hanks, Ron Livingston, Jeremy Strong, Billy Bob Thornton, Jacki Weaver; 2013; The American Film Company

The Rat Pack, W: Kario Salem; D: Rob Cohen; S: Ray Liotta, Joe Mantegna, Don Cheadle, Angus Macfadyen, William L. Petersen, Zeljko Ivanek, Megan Dodds, Deborah Kara Unger; 1998; HBO

The Rock, W: Douglas S. Cook, Mark Rosner and David Weisberg; D: Michael Bay; S: Sean Connery, Nicolas Cage, Ed Harris, John Spencer, David Morse, William Forsythe, Michael Biehn, Vanessa Marcil; 1996; Hollywood Pictures*

Salt, W: Kurt Wimmer; D: Philip Noyce; S: Angelina Jolie, Liev Schreiber, Chiwetel Ejiofor, Daniel Olbychski, Olek Krupa, Andre Braugher; 2010; Columbia*

Seven Days in May, W: Rod Serling (from the novel by Charles W. Bailey II & Fletcher Knebel), D: John Frankenheimer; S: Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas, Frederic March, Edmond O’Brien, Martin Balsam, George Macready, Andrew Duggan, Ava Gardner; 1964; Paramount

Shooter, W: Jonathan Lemkin (from the novel Point of Impact by Stephen Hunter); D: Antoine Fuqua; S: Mark Wahlberg, Michael Pena, Danny Glover, Kate Mara, Ned Beatty; 2007; Paramount*

Slacker, W, D: Richard Linklater; S: Richard Linklater, John Slate; 1991; Orion Classics

Sneakers, W: Lawrence Lasker, Walter F. Parkes, Phil Alden Robinson; D: Robinson; S: Robert Redford, Sidney Poitier, David Strathairn, Dan Aykroyd, River Phoenix, Mary McDonnell, Ben Kingsley; 1992; Universal

Stakeout, W: Jim Kouf; D: John Badham; S: Richard Dreyfus, Emilio Estevez, Madeline Stowe, Aidan Quinn, Dan Lauria, Forest Whitaker, Earl Billings, Ian Tracey; 1987; Touchstone*

Watchmen, W: David Hayter and Alex Tse (from the graphic novel by Dave Gibbons and Alan Moore); D: Zack Snyder; S: Malin Akerman, Billy Crudup, Matthew Goode,, Jackie Earle Haley, Jeffrey Dean Morgan, Patrick Wilson, Carla Gugino; 2009; Warner Brothers*

When Harry Met Sally, W: Nora Ephron; D: Rob Reiner; S: Billy Crystal, Meg Ryan, Carrie Fisher, Bruno Kirby, Steven Ford, Harley Jane Kozak; 1989; Columbia

Winter Kills, W, D: William Richert (from the novel by Richard Condon); S: Jeff Bridges, John Huston, Anthony Perkins, Eli Wallach, Sterling Hayden, Belinda Bauer, Richard Boone, Ralph Meeker; 1979; AVCO Embassy

Yuri Nosenko, KGB, W: Stephen Davis; D: Mick Jackson; S: Tommy Lee Jones, Josef Sommer, Ed Lauter, Oleg Rudnik; 1986; BBC*

Zoolander, W: John Hamburg, Drake Sather, Ben Stiller; D: Stiller; S: Ben Stiller, Owen Wilson, Christine Taylor, Will Ferrell, Milla Jovovich, David Duchovny, Jerry Stiller; 2001; Paramount*

TV SHOWS

“The Magic Bullet”, Angel, W, D: Jeffrey Bell (created by Joss Whedon and David Greenwalt); S: David Boreanaz, Charisma Carpenter, Alexis Denisof, J. August Richards, Amy Acker, Vincent Kartheiser, Andy Hallett, Gina Torres, Patrick Fischler; Air Date: 4/16/03; Network: The WB*

“Question Authority”, Justice League Unlimited, W: Dwayne McDuffie (created by Gardner Fox); D: Dan Riba; S: The voices of George Newburn, Jeffrey Combs, Amy Acker, Chris Cox, Dana Delany, Clancy Brown; Air Date: 6/25/05; Network: Cartoon Network

“The Grown Ups”, Mad Men, W: Brett Johnson and Matthew Weiner (created by Weiner); D: Barbet Schroeder; S: Jon Hamm, Elisabeth Moss, Vincent Kartheiser, January Jones, John Slattery, Rich Sommer, Mark Moses, Jared Harris, Talia Balsam, Elizabeth Rice, Alison Brie, Christopher Stanley; Air Date: 11/1/09; Network: AMC

“Love Among the Ruins”, Mad Men,W: Cathryn Humphris and Matthew Weiner (created by Weiner); D: Lesli Linka Glatter; S: Jon Hamm, Elisabeth Moss, Vincent Kartheiser, January Jones, Christina Hendricks, John Slattery, Talia Balsam, Elizabeth Rice; Air Date: 8/23/09; Network: AMC

“The Boyfriend, Part 1”, Seinfeld, W: Larry David & Larry Levin (created by Jerry Seinfeld and David); D: Tom Cherones; S: Jerry Seinfeld, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Jason Alexander, Michael Richards, Wayne Knight, Keith Hernandez; Air Date: 2/12/92; Network: NBC

“Everything Must Go”, Wild Palms (mini-series), W: Bruce Wagner; D: Peter Hewitt; S: James Belushi, Dana Delany, Robert Loggia, Kim Cattrall, Angie Dickinson, Ernie Hudson, Oliver Stone; Air Date: 5/16/93; Network: ABC*

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5 Comments
  1. ’11/22/63′ by Stephen King is amazing. Read it when you have time. It is so beautiful, you will sob and sob. I was very surprised by it; about JFK, but also so much more.

    • Thanks for commenting, Leanne. I did get to read it; I didn’t like it quite as much as you did, though, as I thought he could have trimmed it somewhat. Still, it had a powerful conclusion, and even though I don’t agree with his conclusions about the assassination, he takes the history seriously and it shows.

  2. I’m a sentimental romantic, so you can understand why I liked it so much. 🙂 I don’t agree with his ideas about the assassination, but I have never really cemented my opinion due to all of the conflicting info. I just watched a new episode of NOVA on PBS this past week that brought up more issues. it will never end.

  3. Very good write-up. I absolutely love this website. Continue the good work!

  4. Remarkable! Its really remarkable article, I have
    got much clear idea concerning from this paragraph.

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